Reichswehr und Röhm-Krise - Der 30. Juni 1934 (German Edition)

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30th June 1934: Nazi party purged on Night of the Long Knives Peukert was born in a working-class family in the Ruhr, his father a coal miner and his mother a housewife, and he was the first member of his family to attend university. As a student, Peukert studied under Hans Mommsen at Bochum university, and began teaching at the University of Essen starting in As a "68er" whose politics were defined by the student protests of , Peukert was active in left-wing politics and joined the German Communist Party. Peukert during his time in the Communist party had come to find the party line on history was too dogmatic and rigid as he kept finding the facts of history were more complex and nuanced than the version of history laid by the party line.

Peukert's first book was his book Ruhrarbeiter gegen den Faschismus Ruhr Workers Against Fascism , a study of anti-Nazi activities among the working class of the Ruhr during the Third Reich. From the right, criticism of Die KPD im Widerstand Verfolgung und Untergrundarbeit am Rhein und Ruhr, came from the American historian Albert Lindemann who complained that Peukert's focus on Communist resistance in the Rhineland and Ruhr regions did not merit a page long book, through Lindemann wrote that wrote the book was not "an exercise in hagiography" and praised Peukert for his "critical remarks" about East German historiography.

Yet Stalinism in the s was at least as brutish in form as Hitlerlism and was responsible, at least until , for many more deaths, indeed for organized murder on an unparalleled scale. The KPD enthusiastically associated itself with the nightmarish inhumanities of Stalin's rule". Peukert was a leading expert in Alltagsgeschichte "history of everyday life" and his work often examined the effect of Nazi social policies on ordinary Germans and on persecuted groups such as Jews and Roma.

The first was to counter what Broszat considered to be the excessively "from above" high politics approach to writing about Nazi Germany which largely saw the story of the Third Reich by looking at the actions of Hitler and the rest of the Nazi elite and treating almost everybody else in Germany as merely passive objects controlled and manipulated by the state. Peukert admitted to being influenced by Broszat's work with the "Bavaria Project", but he gave another reason for becoming interested in alltagsgeschichte in The airing of Holocaust marked the first time that many Germans born after had learned about the Holocaust, which was something of a taboo subject for the first decades after In the early s, Peukert began teaching Alltagsgeschichte , until then a subject mostly ignored by German historians before the s, as he argued that the subject was important.

Thompson and like the British Workshop groups, many involved in the Alltagsgeschichte study groups were not historians with a disproportional number of the volunteers being high-school students. A historian with a very strong work ethic, Peukert believed that history "belonged to everybody", not just the historians, and was very energetic in attempting to break down barriers to interest the public in history by settling up exhibitions about Alltagsgeschichte in the Third Reich. Peukert developed a pyramid model starting with "nonconformity" behavior in private that featured partial rejection of the Nazi regime running to "refusal of co-operation" Verweigerung to "protest", and finally to Widerstand resistance , which involved total rejection of the Nazi regime.

In particular, Peukert looked at how in "everyday life" in Nazi Germany, aspects of both "normality" and "criminality" co-existed with another. In Volksgenossen und Gemeinschaftsfremde , Peukert looked at the experience of "everyday life" in Nazi Germany in its totality, examining both conformity and resistance equally to examine how all Germans, not just those in sub-cultures like the Edelweiss Pirates or the Ruhr miners had behaved. Peukert also sought to critically explore why so many ordinary Germans remembered the Third Reich as a time of blissful normality, arguing that there was a certain selectivity to what many people sought to remember, arguing that memories of genocide were not ones to cherish.

Peukert wrote that the popular claim, made after the war, that the Nazi regime stayed in power only because of terror was incorrect. Even resistance fighters who did not conform were weighted by the experience of persecution, by the sense of their own impotence, and of the petty compromises that were necessary for survival. The system did its work on the anti-fascists too, and often enough it worked despite the shortcomings of the fascists themselves". Peukert wrote that even those Germans who went into "inner emigration", withdrawing from society as much as possible to avoid dealing with the Nazis as much as they could, helped the system worked.

Paradoxically, then, even the population's counter-reaction to the National Socialist pressure of mobilization served to stabilize the system". Another interest for Peukert were the experiences of youth in the Imperial, Weimar and Nazi era. Peukert was one of the first historians to make a detailed examination of the persecution of the Romani. Peukert often compared Nazi policies towards Roma with Nazi policies towards Jews. On the basis of his research into popular attitudes towards "outsiders" in the Third Reich, Peukert came up with the concept of "everyday racism" to explain the contrast between the "normality" of life for most Germans while genocide was being committed.

Another interest of Peukert were the youth movements like the Swing Kids and the Edelweiss Pirates that clashed with the Nazi regime. The American historian Peter Baldwin criticized Peukert for treating the Swing Kids and Edelweiss Pirates sent to concentration camps as morally just as much as victims of the National Socialist regime as the Jews exterminated in the death camps. When criticized for honoring the sacrifice of SS men, Reagan had stated those Germans killed fighting in the SS were just as much victims of Hitler as the Jews exterminated in the death camps, and that therefore placing a memorial wreath honoring the memory of the SS men buried at the Bitburg cemetery was no different from placing a memorial wreath at Auschwitz.

Reagan's statement that the SS and the Jews exterminated by the SS were all equally victims of Hitler is known to historians as the Bitburg fallacy. It rested on the racially legitimated removal of all elements that deviated from the norm, refractory youth, idlers, the asocial, prostitutes, homosexuals, people who were incompetent or failures at work, the disabled. National Socialist eugenics In both cases, however, the growing pressure of suffering is the price paid for the gain in rationality". For Peukert, inspired by the theories of Weber, saw the purpose of his work to help foster experts who have spirit and hedonists with a heart.

1. The beginning: World War I and ethno-nationalism

One of the central issues of German historiography has been the debate over the Sonderweg question, namely whatever German history in the 19th and 20th centuries developed along such lines as to make the Third Reich inevitable. Peukert rejected both viewpoints, instead arguing for seeing Nazi Germany as the product of the "crisis of classical modernity". This approach is supported by a wide variety of debates that have gone within the social sciences, using such notions as 'social disciplining' Foucault , the pathological consequences of the civilizing progress Elias , or the colonisation of the Lebenswelten Habermas.

Peukert often wrote on the social and cultural history of the Weimar Republic whose problems he saw as more severe examples of the problems of modernity. Peukert argued that societies that have reached "classical modernity" are characterized by advanced capitalist economic organization and mass production, by the "rationalization" of culture and society, massive bureaucratization of society, the "spirit of science" assuming a dominant role in popular discourses, and the "social disciplining" and "normalization" of the majority of ordinary people.

Contrary to the "Bielefield school", Peukert argued by the time of the Weimar Republic, Germany had broken decisively with the past, and had become a thoroughly "modern" society in all its aspects. Peukert argued that starting in that the disjoint between Weimar democracy vs. In , when Blomberg was promoted to field marshal , Fritsch received promotion to Blomberg's vacated rank of colonel general Generaloberst.

Fritsch was among the officers present at the Hossbach Conference in where Hitler announced that he wanted to go to war as early as He was very critical of this demand, as he knew the army was not ready. Fritsch had never been a womaniser and had preferred to concentrate on his army career. He was forced to resign on 4 February His replacement— Walther von Brauchitsch —was recommended for the post by Fritsch. Hitler took advantage of the situation through the replacement of several generals and ministers with Nazi loyalists, which strengthened his control of the German Armed Forces Wehrmacht.

Fritsch was acquitted on 18 March, but the damage to his name had been done. Fritsch composed a formal challenge and reportedly practiced his pistol skills in his free time, of which he had plenty as an officer without a command. The letter was given to General Gerd von Rundstedt for delivery, but Rundstedt, seeking to bridge the distrust between the Wehrmacht and SS, ultimately convinced Fritsch to abandon the idea. It is unlikely the encounter could have come about regardless, as Hitler had forbidden highly placed party members, such as Himmler, from dueling.

Despite the false charges, Fritsch remained loyal to the Nazi regime, and maintained his firmly held belief Germany was faced with an international Jewish conspiracy out to ruin the Reich. Soon after the War, I came to the conclusion that we have to be victorious in three battles, if Germany were again to be powerful:.

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The decrease of food rations, along with the disorganization of production systems made the death rates in the ghettos increase dramatically see Pohl, and Musial, , both for the case of the Lublin province. It was a city known for major developments in art and literature. Disturbing, absurd, moving, and ranging from the deeply trivial to the deeply tragic, their tales give a fresh insight into the complexities of the Third Reich, its paradoxes and its ultimate destruction. This book attempts to answer such questions. Messages of a socialistic and Marxist bent attracted mass followings as did messages typified by antilabor, anti-Semitic and antiliberal themes. The atrocities were obvious.

Hitler has won this; 2 Against the Catholic Church, perhaps better expressed as Ultramontanism and 3 Against the Jews. We are in the midst of these battles, and the one against the Jews is the most difficult. I hope everyone realizes the intricacies of this campaign. Fritsch told Ulrich von Hassell —when the latter tried to involve him in an anti-Nazi plot—that Hitler was Germany's destiny, and nothing could be done to change that fact. Just before the outbreak of World War II, Fritsch was recalled, and chose to personally inspect the front lines as the " Colonel-in-chief of the 12th Artillery Regiment" [16] during the invasion of Poland , a very unusual activity for someone of his rank.

On 22 September , in Praga during the Siege of Warsaw , a Polish bullet either a machine gun or a sharpshooter tore an artery in his leg.

Colonel generals of the German Army (Wehrmacht)

Reichswehr und Röhm-Krise - Der Juni (German Edition) - Kindle edition by Christina Quast. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC. Results 1 - 16 of Der Völkerbund in der Krise der 30er Jahre (German Edition). by Christian Wunner | Oct Die Rolle der Reichswehr während der Röhm-Krise (German Edition). by Philipp Nolte Juni (German Edition). by Christina.

Immediately he fell down. Before I took off his braces, the Herr Generaloberst said: "please leave it", lost consciousness and died. Only one minute passed between receiving gunshot and death. As Fritsch was the second general to be killed in action, the event was closely examined. The official verdict was that he deliberately sought death.

William Shirer covers the event in his diary entry dated 26 September It rained, it was cold and dark — one of the dreariest days I can remember in Berlin. Hitler did not show up, nor Ribbentrop, nor Himmler, though they all returned to Berlin from the front this afternoon.

The facilities were combined with the adjoining Cambrai Kaserne when the United States Army occupied Darmstadt in The Cambrai-Fritsch Kaserne was scheduled to be turned over to the German government before March , [19] and was returned to German governance on 6 August Media related to Werner von Fritsch at Wikimedia Commons. As documented in the Hossbach Memorandum, Hitler had been dissatisfied with the two high-ranking military officials concerned, Werner von Blomberg and Werner von Fritsch, and he regarded them as too hesitant towards the war preparations that he was demanding.

Hitler took further advantage of the situation by replacing several generals and ministers with men more loyal to him. Hitler took personal command of the armed forces through the new Oberkommando der Wehrmacht OKW after the defeat outside Moscow in December and appointed himself as commander of the Oberkommando des Heeres OKH after Walther von Brauchitsch was relieved and.

In April , he married Charlotte Hellmich. The couple had five children. After graduating in , Blomberg entered the German General Staff in Fritsch is a German surname. Like Fritsche, Fritzsch and Fritzsche, it is a patronymic derived from Friedrich. Born into an aristocratic military family, Brauchitsch entered army service in During World War I, he served with distinction on the corps- and division-level staff on the Western Front.

He borrowed immense sums of money from Hitler and became dependent on his financial help. He played a key role in the Battle of France and oversaw the German invasions of Yugoslavia and Greece.

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For his part in the Battle of France, hebecame one of twelve generals promoted to Field Marshal. After suffering a heart attack in November and being blamed for the failure of Operation Typhoon, the Wehrmacht's attack on Moscow, he was dismis. Ludwig Beck never became a member of the Nazi Party, though in the early s he supported Adolf Hitler's forceful denunciation of the Versailles Treaty and his belief in the need for Germany to rearm. In serving as Chief of Staff of the German Army between and , Beck became increasingly disillusioned, standing in opposition to the increasing totalitarianism of the Nazi regime and to Hitler's aggressive foreign policy.

Due to public foreign-policy disagreements with Hi. Reichenau commanded the 6th Army, during the invasions of Belgium and France. While in command of the 6th Army during Operation Barbarossa in , he issued the notorious Severity Order which encouraged German soldiers to murder Jewish civilians on the Eastern Front. Reichenau was in charge of the area of operations in which SS, Einsatzgruppen, and Ukrainian Auxiliaries committed the massacre of over 33, Jews at Babi Yar, and assisted with other massacres and atrocities that occurred in areas under his command during the Holocaust.

He was the first general to be killed in World War II. Von Roettig was killed at about on 10 September , near Opoczno, Poland. He was killed when his staff car was ambushed by Polish troops armed with heavy machine guns.

Von Roettig was subsequently shot in the head. Subsequently, the next German general to die was Werner von Fritsch, who was killed on 22 September. As a memorial to him, a street in occupied Prague was named for him during the German occupation of the city. Sources Zinke, Dieter. A leading conspirator in the 20 July plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler,[1] he was designated to become Commander-in-Chief of the Wehrmacht in a post-Nazi regime had the plot succeeded. The Witzleben dynasty was an Uradel family of old nobility and many officers, descending from Witzleben in Thuringia.

In , he was promote. Konstantin Hermann Karl Freiherr[1] von Neurath 2 February — 14 August was a German diplomat remembered mostly for having served as Foreign minister of Germany between and Holding this post in the early years of Adolf Hitler's regime, Neurath was regarded as playing a key role in the foreign policy pursuits of the Nazi dictator in undermining the Treaty of Versailles and territorial expansion in the prelude to World War II, although he was often averse to Hitler's aims tactically if not necessarily ideologically.

This aversion eventually induced Hitler to replace Neurath with the more compliant and fervent Nazi Joachim von Ribbentrop. Neurath served as "Reichsprotektor of Bohemia and Moravia" between and , though his authority was only nominal after September He was tried as a major war criminal in Nuremberg and sentenced to fifteen years' imprisonment for his compliance and actions in the Nazi regime.

Early life Neurath was born at the manor of Kleinglattbach since 1. The Hossbach Memorandum was the summary of a meeting in Berlin on 5 November between German dictator Adolf Hitler and his military and foreign policy leadership in which Hitler's future expansionist policies were outlined. The meeting marked a turning point in Hitler's foreign policies, which then began to radicalize. According to the memorandum, Hitler did not want war in with Britain and France. He wanted small wars of plunder to help support Germany's struggling economy. It was named for the keeper of the minutes of the meeting, Hitler's military adjutant, Colonel Friedrich Hossbach.

Literatur und publizierte Quellen

Contents The conference of 5 November had been called in response to complaints from Admiral Raeder that the navy Krieg. Born into a Prussian family with a long military tradition, Rundstedt entered the Prussian Army in During World War I, he served mainly as a staff officer. In the inter-war years, he continued his military career, reaching the rank of Colonel General Generaloberst before retiring in He was promoted to the rank of Field Marshal in In the invasion of the Soviet Union, he commanded Army Group South, responsible for the largest encirclement in history, the Battle of Kiev.

He was relieved of command in December , but was recalled in and appointed Commander-in-Chief in the West. He was dismissed after the German defea. His two sisters Ilse and Anna both quickly married into noble families. Military career Kielmansegg joined the German Army on 7 April after his time in cadet school in Rosleben and served as a cavalry officer in the 16th Cavalry Regiment in Hofgeismar, Langensalza and Erfurt.

In he was promoted to lieutenant, and in , to captain. Freiherr von Blomberg refers to a German family. Freiherr is a German title of nobility.

6 The Nazi Campaign against Occultism

Blomberg is a German city in the middle of North Rhine-Westphalia, with Detmold as its capital, founded between and During the centuries the Family line spread throughout Eastern Europe from the Baltic sea through to Romania. Of the Bavarian branch, one member of the family diametrically opposed to Heinrich Ulrich was a devout Protestant, Friedrich Freiherr von Blomberg.

His lineage can be traced to Strengberg, a town in Amstetten in Lower Austria. He attempted to assassinate Hitler on 13 March and drafted the Valkyrie plan for a coup against the German government. He was described by the Gestapo as the "prime mover" and the "evil spirit" behind the plot of 20 July to assassinate Hitler.

Early life Tresckow was born in Magdeburg into a noble family from the Brandenburg region of Prussia with years of military tradition that provided the Prussian Army with 21 generals. It was the traditional resting place of the Prussian Army, and is regarded as particularly important as a memorial to the German Wars of Liberation of — History Tomb of General von Scharnhorst The cemetery was established in to provide burial grounds for those veterans wounded in the War of the Austrian Succession, who inhabited a nearby hostel Invalidenhaus built on the orders of King Frederick the Great.

A royal decree of declared that the Invalidenfriedhof should become the burial ground for all distinguished Prussian military personnel, including Bogislav Count Tauentzien von Wittenberg. One of the most notable tombs from this period is that of Gerhard von Scharnhorst a hero of the Napoleonic Wars , designed by Schinkel with a sculpture of a slumbering lion cast out of captured cannon by Rauch. The cemetery was also the resting place of the soldiers killed during the Revolutions of i. Josef Albert Meisinger second row, second from the right during his trial before the Supreme National Tribunal in Warsaw.

He held a position in the Gestapo and was a member of the Nazi Party. From to he worked as liaison for the Gestapo at the German embassy in Tokyo. He was arrested in Japan in , convicted of war crimes and was executed in Warsaw, Poland. On 18 January he attained the rank of Vizefeldwe. He commanded several armies and army groups, including the 2nd Army during Operation Barbarossa and Army Group B during the Battle of Stalingrad in He was removed from the proceeding for medical reasons without having been judged or sentenced.

After the war he remained in the newly created Reichswehr where he worked at a number of General Staff positions. Transferred from the 3rd Cavalry Div. Schleicher was born into a military family in Brandenburg an der Havel on 7 April Schleicher served as liaison between the Army and the new Weimar Republic during the German Revolution of — An important player in the Reichswehr's efforts to avoid the restrictions of the Treaty of Versailles, Schleicher rose to power as head of the Reichswehr's Armed Forces Department and close advisor to President Paul von Hindenburg from onward.

Following the appointment of his mentor Wilhelm. First sent as a holding force to shore up the Italian defense of their African colonies, the formation fought on in Africa, under various appellations, from March until its surrender in May The unit's best known commander was Field Marshal Erwin Rommel.

Originally Hans von Funck was to have commanded it, but Hitler loathed von Funck, as he had been a personal staff officer of Werner von Fritsch until von Fritsch was dismissed in Erwin Planck, about Erwin Planck 12 March — 23 January was a German politician, and a resistance fighter against the Nazi regime.

His father held a professorship at the Berlin Frederick William University since and had become a notable member of the German Physical Society DPG ; his children grew up in the wealthy environment of the Grunewald mansions colony. Having obtained his Abitur degree in , Erwin Planck pursued a career as an officer in the German Army. In World War I, he rather quickly found himself a prisoner of the French forces in Planck returned to Germany in and was active on the General Staff.

Here he first met Major Kurt von Schleicher, the beginning of a lifelong friendship. After the war, Major Schleicher became head of the political department in the newly. Werner is a name of Germanic origins. It is common both as a given name and a surname. There are alternate spellings, such as the Scandinavian Verner.

The oldest known usage of the name was in the Habsburg family. Werner I Bishop of Strasbourg c. After the end of the war, he was tried in the High Command Trial, as part of the Subsequent Nuremberg trials. On 27 October was sentenced to twenty years' imprisonment for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in the Soviet Union. He was released in He entered the Imperial Army in as an officer cadet in the artillery. He was posted to the 25th Field Artillery Regiment and the following year was commissioned as a Leutnant second lieutenant.

Werner von Fritsch | Revolvy

He remained in his regiment until , when he was assigned to Military Riding School. He received a promotion to Oberleutnant first lieutenant in and studied at the Prussian Military Academy for three years. He joined the Great. Early life Olbricht was born October 4, , in Leisnig, Saxony, to Richard Olbricht, a mathematics professor and director of the Realschule secondary school in Bautzen. He fought in World War I, was promoted to captain and chose to stay in the Treaty of Versailles-decimated military the Reichswehr after the war.

After the Night of the Long Knives raid, he was able to save several of those arrested from execution by finding or creating positions for them in the Abwehr. Contrived by the national conservative politician Franz von Papen, who reserved the office of the Vice-Chancellor for himself. The Enabling Act of , passed two months after Hitler took office, gave the cabinet the power to make laws without legislative consent for four years. In effect, this power was vested in Hitler, and for all intents and purposes it made Hitler a dictator.

After the Enabling Act's passage, serious deliberations more or less ended at cabinet meetings. It met only sporadically aft. Cast Willy Fritsch Clemens Andermann Thomas Fritsch Andreas Andermann Gertraud Jesserer Monika Holl Peter Vogel Oskar Werner Vischer Marianne Chappuis Christa Seebald Barbara Stanyk Julius Knackert Peter Matic Joachim Lange Franz Stoss Sebastian Delt Fritz Muliar